Try this essay on William Cecil - he was lord treasurer, basically the queen's prime minister for 40 years (last item in part one, opens as 8 page pdf):http://gale.cengage.co.uk/state-papers-online-15091714/essays.aspx
No. He wasn't like a president or a prime minister as we understand it today. The senior administrative post was secretary. Some historians refer to Cecil as Elizabeth's secretary of state. Other historians debate the use of the term as the monarch would run business through whomever he or she saw fit at the moment - much to Cecil's frustration.
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